美国饮食协会的立场:素食饮食

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Craig WJ,Mangels AR;美国饮食协会

【编者导读】美国饮食协会的立场/观点是:在人生的每个阶段(包括怀孕期、哺乳期、婴儿期、童年、青春期、成人,也包括运动员),只要合理搭配,素食完全可以提供人体需要的一切营养素。素食可以为孕妇提供充足的营养,并对母婴均具有积极的健康益处。素食还可以降低血糖、低密度脂蛋白、体重指数,降低缺血性心脏病的死亡率,降低罹患高血压、2型糖尿病以及各种癌症的几率。

摘要

美国饮食协会(American Dietetic Association)的立场是:适当有规划的素食(包括完全素食或称纯素食)是健康、营养充足的,而且对某些疾病的预防和治疗来说具有裨益。搭配合理的素食饮食(vegetarian diet)适合于每个人一生中的任何阶段,包括怀孕期、哺乳期、婴儿期、童年、青春期以及运动员。素食饮食的定义是无肉类(包括家禽在内)或海鲜以及由这些食物制成的食品。

本文对目前素食相关的关键营养素(key nutrients)进行了回顾,关键营养素包括:蛋白质、n-3系多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 fatty acids)、铁、锌、碘、钙、维生素D和维生素B12。素食均能满足这些目前所推荐的所有营养素。在某些情况下,补充剂(supplements)或强化食物(fortified foods)可以提供大量有用的重要营养素。

一项循证医学回顾(evidence-based review)结果显示素食可以为孕妇提供充足的营养,并对母婴健康具有积极作用;素食能降低因缺血性心脏病(ischemic heart disease)死亡的风险。与非素食者相比较,素食者看起来低密度脂蛋白、血糖水平较低,而且罹患高血压和2型糖尿病几率较低;此外,素食者的体重指数(BMI)以及罹患所有癌症的几率往往都较低。素食可以降低罹患慢性病的几率。素食的特点包括摄入的饱和脂肪和胆固醇较低,而摄入的水果、蔬菜、全谷类、坚果、豆制品、纤维素以及植物营养素(phytochemicals)较高。对于素食者来说,在评估饮食是否充裕恰当时,食物的变化是必不可少的。除了评估饮食是否充裕之外,从事食品与营养的专业人士还需要在对素食者进行教育方面扮演重要角色,例如有关特殊营养素来源,食物的采购和准备以及如何调整饮食以满足素食者自身需求等方面的教育。

来源:美国安德鲁斯大学

发表于2009年7月《美国膳食协会会刊》杂志

PMID:19562864

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864/

J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jul; 109(7):1266-82.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

Craig WJ, Mangels AR; American Dietetic Association.

Author information:

Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI, USA.

Abstract

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.