加工食品中减少盐量对健康的潜在影响

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Hendriksen MA,Hoogenveen RT,Hoekstra J,Geleijnse JM,

Boshuizen HC,van Raaij JM

【编者导读】如今的民众基本有这样的认识:摄入过高的盐量与高血压相关,而且会增加心血管疾病的发病率和死亡率。荷兰国立公共卫生与环境研究所以及瓦赫宁根大学人类营养部的研究人员发现:坚持推荐的每日最大盐摄取量小于6克的饮食,能在一定程度上预防一些严重的心血管疾病,还可以降低伤残调整生命年,同时还能延长预期寿命。而采取低盐饮食取代高盐饮食者则更有利于健康。因此为了身体康健,应选择低盐饮食。

摘要

背景(Background):

摄入过多的盐分与高血压相关,并会增加心血管疾病(cardiovascular disease)的发病率(morbidity)和死亡率(mortality)。减少盐的摄入是荷兰重要的公众卫生策略。

目的(Objective):

本研究的目的是评估减少加工食品中盐量措施对荷兰人口的健康益处。

设计(Design):

设计了三种减少盐量的方案:(1)用低盐食品取代高盐食品;(2)减少加工食品中纳的含量;(3)坚持推荐的每天食盐最大摄取量(recommended maximum salt intake)为6克。健康结果(Health outcomes)通过两个步骤获取:(1)摄入盐分后构建血压水平模型;(2)慢性病模式:用于把血压模型转变为心血管疾病发生率、伤残调整生命年(disability-adjusted life years,DALYs)以及预期寿命(life expectancies)。将少盐方案与目前食盐摄入量的两种健康结果进行对比。

结果(Results):

总体而言,如果食盐摄入量达到推荐的最大摄取量,那么可以预防4.8%的急性心肌梗死病例(acute myocardial infarction cases)、1.7%的充血性心脏衰竭病例(congestive heart failure cases)以及5.8%的中风病例(stroke cases)。疾病负担(The burden of disease)将下降56,400伤残调整生命年(DALYs),而预期寿命对一个40岁的个体来说可以延长1.8个月(0.15年)。具有可比性的低盐食物替代方案可降低稍高的盐分摄入量,而更有利于健康。而以上数据在降低加工食物中钠含量的方案中略微降低。

结论(Conclusion):

在加工食品中不加盐,以及消费者选择更多的低盐食品将更有利于健康。

来源:荷兰国立公共卫生与环境研究所,荷兰瓦赫宁根大学人类营养部

发表于2013年12月11日《美国临床营养期刊》杂志

PMID:24335058

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335058

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health.

Hendriksen MA, Hoogenveen RT, Hoekstra J, Geleijnse JM,

Boshuizen HC, van Raaij JM.

Author information:

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands (MAHH, RTH, JH, HCB, and JMAvR), and the Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands (JMG, HCB, and JMAvR).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population.

DESIGN:

Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake.

RESULTS:

In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus in more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower.

CONCLUSION:

Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more for low-salt food alternatives.