长期低热量、低蛋白纯素食以及耐力运动能够降低心脏代谢危险

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Fontana L,Meyer TE,Klein S,Holloszy JO

【编者导读】来自美国华盛顿大学的研究学者分别对低热量、低蛋白纯素食者、耐力运动而吃西方饮食者、久坐并吃西方饮食者进行了横向研究,比较了3组之间的体重指数、血脂、血浆脂蛋白、血糖、胰岛素、C-反应蛋白、血压以及颈动脉内膜中层厚度等指标。研究结果发现:低热量、低蛋白纯素食和定期耐力运动有利于降低心脏代谢风险,另外低热量、低蛋白纯素食中特殊的成分对血压具有额外的益处。

【编注】心脏代谢危险由一系列可调节的风险因素组成,包括:高血糖、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)高、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)低、高甘油三酯(TG)、高血压或腹部脂肪过多(通过腰围衡量)。近年的研究表明这些可调节的风险因素可以升高人们罹患II型糖尿病和心脏病的风险。

摘要

背景(Background):

西方饮食(Western diets)通常含有大量高能量的加工食物(energy-dense processed foods),再加上久坐的生活方式,这两种因素增加了心脏代谢危险(cardiometabolic risk)。我们评估了在心脏代谢危险因素(cardiometabolic risk factor)中,摄入低热量、低蛋白纯素食或者定期耐力运动的长期效应。

方法(Methods):

本横向研究(cross-sectional study)中,分别评估了3组各21名待测者的心脏代谢危险。第一组为久坐不动,但坚持了1.6~7.2年的低热量、低蛋白纯素食者,平均年龄为:42.1~64.1岁。第二组待测人员与第一组待测者的体重指数(body mass index,BMI)相当,坚持耐力长跑,但吃西方饮食者。第三组为年龄、性别相当,久坐不动,吃西方饮食者。

结果(Results):

低热量、低蛋白纯素食组的体重指数(BMI)为18.2~24.4kg/m(2),耐力长跑组的BMI为19.5~22.7kg/m(2),这两组的BMI均低于久坐西方饮食组,该组BMI为23.8~29.2kg/m(2),前两组与后一组之间具有显著性差异(P<0.005)。血脂、血浆脂蛋白、血糖、胰岛素、C-反应蛋白(C-reactive protein)、血压(blood pressure,BP)以及颈动脉内膜中层厚度(carotid artery intima-media thickness),这些指标在低热量、低蛋白纯素食组和耐力长跑组均低于久坐不动西方饮食组,均具有显著性差异(P<0.005)。低热量、低蛋白纯素食组的收缩压和舒张压均低于BMI相当的耐力长跑组和久坐西方饮食组,而且具有显著性差异(P<0.005),三组血压分别为:89~119/51~73 mm Hg,109~135/63~81 mm Hg和118~146/71~87 mm Hg。血压值与纳的摄入量呈正相关,而与钾以及纤维物质摄入量呈负相关。

结论(Conlusions):

长期低热量、低蛋白纯素食或定期耐力运动训练与低心脏代谢危险相关。另外,我们的数据亦提示低热量、低蛋白纯素食中特殊的成分对血压具有额外的益处。

来源:美国华盛顿大学医学院老年医学与营养医学系、人类营养中心

发表于2007年6月《返老还童研究》杂志

Rejuvenation Res. 2007 Jun;10(2):225-34.

PMID:17518696

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17518696

Rejuvenation Res. 2007 Jun;10(2):225-34.

Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO.

Author information

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences and Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. lfontana@im.wustl.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors.

METHODS:

In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets.

RESULTS:

BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.005). Plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood pressure (BP), and carotid artery intima-media thickness were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p < 0.05). Both systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p < 0.001); BP values were directly associated with sodium intake and inversely associated with potassium and fiber intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-term consumption of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.