不丹欲成为世界上第一个全有机的国家

Bhutan set to plough lone furrow as world’s first wholly organic country

不丹计划成为世界上第一个完全有机的农业国家,禁止销售农药和除草剂,并依靠自己的动物和农业废弃物作为肥料。

但是与其说接受作为120多万人口的小喜马拉雅王国(根据Pema Gyamtsho,不丹的农业和森林部长,世界银行估计为大约74万)的农民因此减少食品产量,政府希望他们能够生产更多的粮食,并且能够出口更多高品质的食品到邻近的印度,中国和其他国家。

Gyamtsho在上周德里的年度可持续发展会议上说,决定转为有机是既实际又有哲学意义的。 “我们国度拥有多山的地形。我们使用化学品时,他们不会停留在使用的地方,它们会影响到水和植物。 我们需要考虑到整体环境。我们绝大部分的农场实行的是传统的农业,所以我们主要还是有机农业。”

他说,“但我们也是佛教徒,我们相信生活应与自然和谐相处。动物有生存的权利,我们喜欢看到植物和昆虫的快乐。”

Gyamtsho,就象绝大多数的内阁成员一样,自己也是个农民,来自不丹中部的布姆唐(Bumthang),但在新西兰和瑞士学习西方的耕作方法。

“转为有机是需要时间的,” 他说。 “我们没有设定最后期限。我们不可能明天就做到这一点。相反,我们将会就不同地区和作物逐步地去实现。”

作为只是在30年前对外开放的压倒性农业国, 目前正经历许多快速发展国家在其发展过程中的很多阵痛。 其中包括年轻人不愿意只是靠种地生活而迁移到印度和其他地方,人口迅速增加,消费主义和文化变革所带来的不可避免的压力。

但是,Gyamtsho说,不丹的未来在很大程度上取决于她如何应付发展中相互关联的挑战,如气候变化,粮食和能源安全等。 “如果我们只吃自己生产的,我们在食品上已经是自给自足的。 但是我们进口大米。进食大米现在很普遍,但在传统上大米是很难弄到的。只有富人和精英阶层才能吃到,大米赋予人们身份。 现在,趋势发生了逆转。人们越来越注重健康,乐于吃谷物,如荞麦和小麦。“

在西方,有机食品被广泛认为会减少作物的产量,因为他们更容易受到虫害。但是,这在不丹和亚洲的一些地区受到了挑战,小农正在开发新的技术以便增加生产并且不至于失去土壤的质量。

像“可持续根部强化”(sustainable root intensification, 简称为SRI)等系统,通过仔细调节农作物需要的水量和播种的时机,显示在没有人工合成的化学药品情况下,有机作物产量可提高一倍。

Gyamtsho说:“我们正在尝试用不同的方法种农作物,比如SRI,但我们也将增加灌溉土地的数量和使用抗虫和不需求化学药物的传统农作物品种”。

然而,异常温暖的年度以及变化无常的天气致使许多农民怀疑他们在没有化学药物的情况下能否做到。

在不丹西南部的帕罗(Paro),一个主要的农业区,农民们已经在努力提高生产到足以养活他们的家人。 当地政府官员说,他们现在不得不分发更多的化肥和农药,以帮助人们提高生产。

地区农业官员仁增旺楚(Rinzen Wangchuk)说:“我听说过把一切都变成有机的计划。但是,我们在保持现有产量方面还依然面临着严重的问题”。

“这里大多数人是小农户。 在过去几年中我们曾面临过农作物的问题。天气一直很不稳定。 气候变得比以前暖和,所有的辣椒都受到了害虫的侵袭。跟以往比起来,我们不得不更加依赖于化肥,即使这样,农作物也没有以前长得好”

依赖于两亩稻田和菜园的达瓦·策林(Dawa Tshering)说,几十年来,他一直坚持不使用化学药品耕种。

“但现在比较困难,因为我们所有的孩子不是去了首都就是仍在学习。没有人乐意留下来,这意味着我们必须更加努力地工作。目前只有我和我的妻子在这里。我们达不到足够的产量以养活自己并拿到市场上,所以我们第一次地不得不使用化学品。我们希望回到我们过去只使用大自然提供给我们的种植方式。”

但是,在寻找新想法的这个世界,不丹已经被称为可持续发展的典范。超过95%的人口拥有干净的水,电,80%的国家土地是森林植被,并且令许多国家羡慕的,它是碳排放正常和食品安全的国度。

此外,其经济发展的基础是基于追求集体幸福。

“我们没有化石燃料或核能。 但很幸运的, 我们有河流可以提供超过30,000兆瓦电力的潜力。到目前为止,我们只开发了2000兆瓦。这些电力足够出口到印度,并且还有10000兆瓦的开发潜能。我们面临的最大威胁是汽车。汽车的数量每天都在增加。 每个人都希望购买汽车,这意味着我们必须进口燃料。这就是为什么我们必须发展我们的能源。”

农业部部长Gyamtsho保持乐观态度。 “希望我们能够找到解决方案。 未来才是关键。我们需要政府可以大胆的在现在作出决定,而不是在以后。”

文章来源:http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2013/feb/11/bhutan-first-wholly-organic-country

翻译:圆怀,不惑

校对:沃色卓玛

 

Bhutan set to plough lone furrow as world’s first wholly organic country

By shunning all but organic farming techniques, the Himalayan state will cement its status as a paradigm of sustainability

Stooping to conquer … Already an overwhelmingly agrarian state, Bhutan is aiming to become the world’s first completely organic country. Photograph: Alamy

Bhutan plans to become the first country in the world to turn its agriculture completely organic, banning the sales of pesticides and herbicides and relying on its own animals and farm waste for fertilisers.

But rather than accept that this will mean farmers of the small Himalayan kingdom of around 1.2m people (according to Pema Gyamtsho, Bhutan’s minister of agriculture and forests; the World Bank estimates it at around 740,000) will be able to grow less food, the government expects them to be able to grow more – and to export increasing amounts of high quality niche foods to neighbouring India, China and other countries.

The decision to go organic was both practical and philosophical, said Gyamtsho, in Delhi for the annual sustainable development conference last week. “Ours is a mountainous terrain. When we use chemicals they don’t stay where we use them, they impact the water and plants. We say that we need to consider all the environment. Most of our farm practices are traditional farming, so we are largely organic anyway.

“But we are Buddhists, too, and we believe in living in harmony with nature. Animals have the right to live, we like to to see plants happy and insects happy,” he said.

Gyamtsho, like most members of the cabinet, is a farmer himself, coming from Bumthang in central Bhutan but studying western farming methods in New Zealand and Switzerland.

“Going organic will take time,” he said. “We have set no deadline. We cannot do it tomorrow. Instead we will achieve it region by region and crop by crop.”

The overwhelmingly agrarian nation, which really only opened its doors to world influences 30 years ago, is now facing many of the development pangs being felt everywhere in rapidly emerging countries. Young people reluctant to live just by farming are migrating to India and elsewhere, there is a population explosion, and there is inevitable pressure for consumerism and cultural change.

But, says Gyamtsho, Bhutan’s future depends largely on how it responds to interlinked development challenges like climate change, and food and energy security. “We would already be self-sufficient in food if we only ate what we produced. But we import rice. Rice eating is now very common, but traditionally it was very hard to get. Only the rich and the elite had it. Rice conferred status. Now the trend is reversing. People are becoming more health-conscious and are eating grains like buckwheat and wheat.”

In the west, organic food growing is widely thought to reduce the size of crops because they become more susceptible to pests. But this is being challenged in Bhutan and some regions of Asia, where smallholders are developing new techniques to grow more and are not losing soil quality.

Systems like “sustainable root intensification” (SRI), which carefully regulate the amount of water that crops need and the age at which seedlings are planted out, have shown that organic crop yields can be doubled with no synthetic chemicals.

“We are experimenting with different methods of growing crops like SRI but we are also going to increase the amount of irrigated land and use traditional varieties of crops which do not require inputs and have pest resistance,” says Gyamtsho.

However, a run of exceptionally warm years and erratic weather has left many farmers doubtful they can do without chemicals.

In Paro, a largely farming district in south-west Bhutan, farmers are already struggling to grow enough to feed their families and local government officials say they are having to distribute fertiliser and pesticides in larger quantities to help people grow more.

“I have heard of the plan to turn everything organic. But we are facing serious problems just getting people to grow enough”, said Rinzen Wangchuk, district farm officer.

“Most people here are smallholder farmers. The last few years we have had problems with the crops. The weather has been very erratic. It’s been warmer than normal and all the chilli crops are full of pests. We are having to rely on fertilisers more than we have ever had to in the past and even these are not working as well as they initially did.”

Dawa Tshering, who depends on his two acres of rice paddy and a vegetable garden, says that for decades his farming was chemical free.

“But its harder now because all our children are either in the capital or studying. Nobody wants to stay, which means we have to work harder. It’s just my wife an myself here. We cannot grow enough to feed ourselves and take crops to the market, so we have to use chemicals for the first time. We would like to go back to farming how we used to, where we just used what nature provided.”

But in a world looking for new ideas, Bhutan is already called the poster child of sustainable development. More than 95% of the population has clean water and electricity, 80% of the country is forested and, to the envy of many countries, it is carbon neutral and food secure.

In addition, it is now basing its economic development on the pursuit of collective happiness.

“We have no fossil fuels or nuclear. But we are blessed with rivers which give us the potential of over 30,000megawatts of electricity. So far we only exploit 2,000 megawatts. We exploit enough now to export to India and in the pipeline we have 10,000 megawatts more. The biggest threat we face is cars. The number is increasing every day. Everyone wants to buy cars and that means we must import fuel. That is why we must develop our energy.”

Agriculture minister Gyamtsho remains optimistic. “Hopefully we can provide solutions. What is at stake is the future. We need governments who can make bold decisions now rather than later.”